Tuesday, 25 April 2017

Photography: Spring Colours

by Rohin Kachroo



What Belt Are You Wearing?

by Tom Fairman


Theresa May’s surprise announcement has set in motion the endless news cycle that only an election brings; new announcements and policies each hour, journalists trying to get a politician to contradict themselves or promise the impossible, another poll telling us who is winning or losing. The shorter lead up time caused by a snap general election will only heighten the continual stream of words from politicians, journalists and pollsters alike making it harder to hear, let alone think about, the issues.
Most of the column inches in the first few days have been devoted to the U-turn of Theresa May in calling the election itself. She had publicly declared she would not hold an election at least five times in the past year with many YouTube videos collating these statements. This comes hot on the heels of her campaigning to remain in the EU, but then wanting to be the leader who takes us out of the EU. This is unfortunately not a new phenomenon for our politicians.
Every manifesto is taken with a pinch of salt as experience has made us wary; scrapping tuition fees and not raising NI contributions are two examples from the recent past. Ed Miliband took the extreme step of putting his policies onto a large stone monument before the last election that turned into his epitaph. However taking someone’s word at face value seems to be turning into a weakness rather than a strength. You are called naive and told to be more streetwise when you trust in the strength of a word that is then taken back. A lot of the reporting around the election announcement centred on what Theresa May really meant, insinuating that the words she spoke should not be taken at face value.
The post-Easter story of ‘Doubting Thomas’ highlights this issue. Jesus had appeared to Mary Magdalene and she had told the disciples He is risen, but they were dubious and the disciples carried on hiding in a locked room out of fear. Then Jesus miraculously appeared in their midst, but Thomas was not there.
Thomas was now faced with at least two accounts of Jesus being risen from the dead. Two stories from two different sources; enough to be published in any newspaper today. Yet his response is to say I will never believe unless I see Him for myself. He does not take their word for it; he cannot hear the words they say, he cannot accept the message they bring. Maybe it is a human condition to continually question what we hear. Maybe we have been let down too much to trust in the integrity of those we meet or of those in power?

Monday, 24 April 2017

Photography: Skipping

by Imogen Ashby






Understanding Real World Economics by Understanding We Are Human

by Georgia McKirgan

Classical economics, from Adam Smith to David Riccardo to Alfred Marshall, is based on a couple of key assumptions. Economic actors (individuals and companies) seek to maximise their utility (satisfaction) by making perfectly rational decisions in possession of perfect information. When these people come together in a market, these motivations and preferences result in the type of market behaviour that we are forever charting in class, using traditional demand and supply curves. As I was thinking about applying this to real world situations, I kept coming across examples where people were not completely rational in their economic behaviour. This bothered me, but I kept assuming that while individuals may not follow these classical patterns of behaviour, a theoretical model based on these assumptions may still give valuable insights in to the real world. I thought no more about this problem until I came across the work of psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky who published a paper in 1979 about Prospect Theory which challenged the classical Expected Utility Theory.

Prospect Theory can be understood with a few simple examples. A key assumption in Prospect Theory is 'Loss Aversion' which means that losses hurt more than gains feel good. This differs from expected utility theory in which a rational agent would have a symmetrical utility curve around zero. In a laboratory setting, Kahneman and Tversky conducted a number of experiments. Subjects were asked to choose between a pair of probability-weighted outcomes. First, they were asked to choose between a 100% chance of winning $500 and a 50% chance of winning $1,000. The majority of respondents chose the 100% chance of winning $500. As the two choices are equal on a probability-weighted basis, the classical theory would suggest people should be neutral between the two choices. On the loss side, subjects were asked to choose between a 100% chance of losing $500 or a 50% chance of losing $1,000. Rather than take a guaranteed loss of $500, most subjects took the option of a 50% chance of a $1,000 loss. Take another example. Subjects were asked to put a dollar value on two life insurance policies. One would cover the subject from death for a period of 10 years. The other would cover the subject from death in a terrorist attack for 10 years. On average, the subjects put a higher value on the second policy despite the fact that the first policy covered terrorism as well as any other kind of death in the same 10 year period. For the subjects, death in a terrorist attack sounds worse than other kinds of death so they ascribe a higher value to a policy that covers that event despite the fact that the other policy has more coverage. Basing economic theories on more accurate descriptions of how economic actors behave sounds like a much better approach. These are not random errors of judgement but predictable cognitive biases.

Kahneman and Tversky eventually won the Nobel Prize for Economics, despite the fact that they are both academic psychologists. Based on their work, Behavioural Exonomics has developed into one of the most fertile areas of Economics for new thinking. While most of Kahneman and Tversky's experiments were conducted in a laboratory setting, Prospect Theory can be used to better understand many real-life economic situations and one obvious example is financial transactions. The Loss Aversion component of Prospect Theory leads to something called the 'Disposition Effect', the empirical finding that owners of financial assets have a greater propensity  to sell an asset that has risen in value since purchase (locking in a profit) rather than sell assets that have fallen in value (locking in a loss). This is puzzling because many asset prices tend to exhibit 'momentum' where assets that have done well, continue to perform well and assets that have performed poorly, continue to lag. A rational approach to this scenario would be to sell the asset that has gone down and hold the asset that has gone down...contrary to what is observed.

Sunday, 23 April 2017

Interview with Asifa Lahore

Introduction by Tanya Thekkekkara


We go to a school where difference is not simply tolerated, it is celebrated. A school where 69% of pupils believe it is easy to come out, a school where pupils, staff and parents can have pride in being who they truly are. By being here you are part of a movement of people who are making a statement that differences of gender, sexuality, faith, disability or anything else will not divide us. Two years ago I got in touch with Asifa after watching Channel 4's Muslim Drag Queens and here I was touched by Asifa’s bravery in intertwining her muslim faith whilst simultaneously being her authentic self. Being the UK’s first open muslim drag queen, Asifa is providing an avenue for representation to the Asian LGBTQ+ community. Once again, I would like to thank Mrs Morgan for facilitating this event today, and PGS Pride itself. PGS Pride has evolved over the years and I am excited to see what more our school can achieve. Thank you.

Jo Morgan interviews Asifa Lahore following her presentation to PGS Pride on Friday. 




Last time we saw you you were living as man and performing as Asifa. We understand that you’ve now decided to transition and live as a woman. What sparked this change?
Before doing drag I thought my male identity was solid. However, over time I’ve been becoming more honest with myself. The tipping point came in October last year at a an LGBT conference in South Africa. I met inspirational trans* people from across the world who have shown bravery, even in hard circumstances and I realised that it was time to be more honest with myself.

What’s changes have you experienced since living as a woman?
My day to day life and performances are the same but medically the changes are really noticeable. The hormones are creating mood swings and changing my taste buds but I’m still the same person.

Would you still consider yourself to be a drag queen now you’re living as a woman?
Absolutely. Drag is always a performance and when I’m on stage my alter ego takes over. I’ll always be Britain’s first Muslim drag queen.

Has the Muslim community reacted differently to you since you’ve transitioned?
In a way, yes – in many Muslim countries it’s more acceptable to be trans than gay (In Iran the state will pay for gay men to transition). It’s really early days for me though. I’m still waiting to come out to my family and much of the Gaysian community so we’ll see. You’re getting an exclusive!

Are you ready to fully come out as trans?
I don’t know, I guess I’m going to have to be. I am beginning to physically change more now with the hormones so people will probably start noticing.

How do you think people will respond?
I don’t think it will be a huge shock. I’ve been performing as Asifa for many years and sometimes people use female pronouns with me anyway. I do recognise though that it will be difficult for the people around me and they’re going to need some time to adjust.



What advice would you give to someone who thinks they might be trans*?
Talk about it. This is not a snap decision or taken in isolation. I’m 33 and have taken many years to make what is a massive decision. Have honest conversations with yourself and people you can trust. Don’t feel like you need to rush, allow yourself to evolve – every day is different. There’s no button you can push, things don’t happen overnight.

Do you think there should be an age limit for transitioning?
I don’t know, it’s difficult. There’s so much more visibility and information out there now. I think the current system has got it right. Giving a child hormones rather than medically transitioning seems more sensible to avoid the wrong decision being made. Waiting has the advantage physically and mentally and puberty blockers make this less traumatic.

How do you reconcile your faith with your sexuality and gender identity?
I believe in Islam and I follow the five pillars. I’ve performed the hajj, I give my zakat (charity), I pray, I believe in Allah and I observe Ramadan. Obviously there are other areas I don’t follow like living in a monogamous heterosexual marriage etc. The reality is that all I can do is be authentic and observe my faith. I believe that God created me in this way and that He wants me to be myself. I tried living a lie and it didn’t work. I will let God be my judge.

Photography: Wild Hilsea

by Tony Hicks

I took these photographs of Portsmouth wildlife while out and about in Hilsea yesterday. 





Thursday, 20 April 2017

Photography: Wild

by Tony Hicks





What Does a Feminist Look Like?

by Naeve Molho



The inspiration for such an article came as Lola Kirke made headlines for her ‘nicely grown armpit hair’ at the 2017 Golden Globes, instantly brandishing her as brave and a raging feminist ‘breaking the stereotypes’ for women.  The fact that this made numerous headlines is insulting to Feminism.  It’s showing the ignorance and lack of understanding of Feminism and its true meaning.  In the article published by ‘Yahoo style UK’ any information surrounding Lolas actual career or achievements was completely ignored, instead they chose to focus on the peaking wisps of body hair beneath her arms. 

The fact that the media is endorsing the stereotypes of what Feminist should look like is insulting.
Google tells us the top three attributes of all Feminists are angry, men-hating, lesbians.   This could not be further from the truth. In actual fact a Feminist can be anyone, of any ethnicity and of any sex who believes in gender equality.  Having an excess of body hair does not make you a feminist.  It’s important we stop connecting feminism with a certain type of person or style because it’s a degrading stereotype that has no truth.  The fact that the Huffington post felt it was necessary to write an article on ‘23 was to make your clothes radiate feminism’  shows the true definition and justification for being a feminist have been forgotten.  In fact the slogan on one shirt ‘The future is female’ does not promote feminism at all because feminism is not saying that women deserve better than men but that they deserve the same as men.  If the roles were reversed and that top read ‘The future is male’ there would be severe backlash and criticism. 

Poem: Coming Home

by Libby Rhodes 



Did you shoot anyone, you know like they do in the movies?
Did you see any animals?
Did you make any new friends?
Did you arrest anyone, you know put them in handcuffs?
Was it amazing , did you take any photos?
Did you bring anything back for me?
Did you?
Did you?

Did you?
Yes. I did.

I had to shoot hundreds of men, women too if they had guns,
It was them or me, that's war, you wouldn't understand.
They were all fathers, mothers, wives, brothers, who deserved their lives just as much as our family does.
Animals? They were were animals. Everyone one of them.
The friends I made were shot. Dead. Lifeless. Still.
No, I didn't need to arrest anyone. Who needs to handcuff someone when they're already gone?
When you're older, as for me, they're permanently carved into my mind.  
There were no souvenirs, I only brought back myself.

I was blessed with my life. As I saw many a man fall to the ground wounded or dead. Crying. Screaming for their mothers. And in the dark nights I was screaming for mine.

Maybe before any more questions, I can come inside and put my kit down.

As I finally get through the door.
Too many questions, making me tick,
Faster.
Faster.
Faster.

I thought coming home would be easier than this. 

A Week in The Vascular Department, at QA Hospital

by Monideep Ghosh


After fortunately securing a one-week work experience programme at the vascular department, I set out to for a brief consultation followed by my first observatory operation- an EVAR (Endovascular Aortic Repair). This was required due to a 5.6cm intrarenal aortic aneurysm and was treated with the placement of an endovascular stent graft. Admittedly, it was a slightly mundane spectacle, however it allowed me to clearly understand the intricacy and sheer precision required at this level of professional healthcare and was executed perfectly by the experienced consultant. The afternoon held in store a huge contrast and was much more graphic and vivid than the previous procedure. As a result of frequent drug abuse, the patient required a ‘Bilateral Transmet Amputation’ which is essentially both feet being chopped off after being blackened and as the anaesthetist said too much of the team’s amusement, ‘It’s good old, fundamental surgery- if it’s dead, it’s gotta go!’. After applying the spinal anaesthetic to cancel any nerves to the lower side of the body, the surgeons, fairly brusquely, picked up a scalpel and just began sawing the feet of much to my horror and gradual excitement. The wound was left open and was swiftly dressed with the anticipation that the granulated skin exposed on the side of the leg would eventually reappear in the operated area. The patient was awoken and was troublesome with her psychological issues seen as she questioned the entire surgery. The consultant gently explained the extreme necessity of the procedure and offered her painkillers for back relief which was met with gratitude and understanding by the patient.

Day 2 began with a ward around which was useful, in particular for me, as it gave me a chance to speak to a couple of junior doctors. They did state that they feel ‘like a bit of a spare part’ but the enjoyment of working in a team sometimes does overshadow that. Administrative tasks such a taking clinical notes is a key part of the work they do but the variety of patients they see allows them to develop adequate knowledge in a variety of medical situations which will obviously aid them in the future when they begin to choose specialities etc. A flurry of hernia related operations followed and further reinforced this idea of accuracy and precision that all surgeons must have when performing such operations. The afternoon entailed a ‘de clotting of the left PTFE graft’ which partly had to be undertaken due to the patient’s lifelong type 1 diabetes. The patient, aged 65, has had regular treatment in the department with some of them related to general age.

The next day involved a different side to the department- the assessment unit (lab). This is the area in which suspected patients receive scans in order to investigate certain conditions such as one patient required one for DVT (deep vein thrombosis) which is blood clot that has developed in the lower leg of the body. The symptoms include deep swelling, reddening and warmth in the area in question. The scan was taken by the clinical scientist and the waveforms were analysed to check for irregular patterns in the blood flow and hence check if there was a clot. The Doppler effect is used for this and I gained a brief insight into how technology is an integral part for the detection of disease as well as the fact it isn’t just doctors who are responsible for the curation of infection in the hospital.